The map above shows the approximate latitudes where long-day onions need to be grown. How to grow luffa gourd. Spring onions are relatively easy to grow, and just take a few months to mature, compared with twice this for bulb onions. Because of the likes of spring onions, scales, and green onions are increasing rapidly. Please reload CAPTCHA. How To Plant Fall Onions Soil Preparation. Spring Onions. (Store bought seeds work too.) Green onions are the exception and can be planted one inch apart. Planting onion bulbs early in the spring gives you the option of harvesting early for green onions or later in the summer for mature onions. We prefer planting onion sets over seed, simply because they establish quickly, and are easier to plant. Frost tolerant. Cure them with their tops still attached, in a dry location with good air circulation – they can hang on a fence or over the railing on a porch to cure if there is no rain in the forecast. You can grow the onion inside the house in the spring.  =  Grow in a fertile, well-drained, crumbly loam with a pH of 6.5 or above. If possible, till in aged manure the fall before planting. Spring onions are one of the easiest vegetables you can grow because they yield a lot and don't take up a long of space! Do not put the soil back around the onions; the bulb needs to emerge above the soil. Spring onions require full sun and well-cultivated fertile soil. How to grow spring Onion. Space onion plants 6 inches apart in rows that are 12 inches apart. Alternatively, you can easily put it in the containers as well. Long-day onions are just the opposite with lower sugar and water content but higher sulphur, making them best for storage and cooking. The seeds can be used to plant in soil both indoor and out and spring onions grow very easily indoors from these seeds. © Copyright 1993 - 2020 - Terroir Seeds | Underwood Gardens. Keep the distance between each. It requires some caution. Planting sprouted onions. Potatoes growing in containers. The green onions pot is used and eatable within 10 days. timeout Feeding. }, How to grow spring onions the easy way with this handy step by step video. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizer will grow larger bulbs at the expense of flavor. Enjoy fresh onions as soon as they’ve grown a few inches tall – cut above the white part. Before you can introduce your onion sprouts to the cold, cruel world, you’ll … It is important to keep onion rows weed-free until they become well established. According to the Old Farmer’s Almanac , it’s important to plant fresh seeds each season, as onion seeds have a short shelf life. They can use litmus paper or any other test. 9 Our long-day selections include Yellow Stuttgarter (in the header photo), White Ebenezer and Red Wethersfield onions. Add 3 cm of manure to the top of the container. Sometimes we see sprouts onions. They grow faster but are the most expensive and fragile option as they are susceptible to transport and transplant shock. Position. Then the shallots submerge in it. 12 to 14 hours of daylight will produce a good bulb. They are often overlooked in gardening books, possibly because they are really easy to grow, but they are useful in the kitchen and very popular. https://www.allrecipes.com/article/save-money-diy-fresh-green-onions To grow green onions, simply plant the seeds and harvest when they are an appropriate size for your use! Sun or partial shade. Mature bulb sizes will be smaller if they do not receive enough water. 1. Spring onions are a light onion, which is used as an alternative to onions. Spring onions prefer abundant sun and well-prepared, healthy soil with good drainage. How to grow Spring Onions | Growing Spring Onions in a pots, Dianthus flowers growing and caring tips. Take care of it for 6 to 7 weeks, because it is well established in the soil during this spring. Remove each bulb with a bunch of leaves carefully. display: none !important; Day-neutral onions are usually sweeter and juicier than their long-day counterparts. As a member of the allium family they are a natural pest repellant to most foraging animals in the home garden. Growing great onions, whether in the spring or fall, all starts with great soil. Spring onions, also known as scallions, are very easily grown Salad onions, and provide a good substitute when bulb onions are not readily available. Then garnish it as a salad. If you want to grow green onions organic vegetables in your container, then this is a good choice. During this time, it should be free from the weed. Feed every few weeks with nitrogen rich fish emulsion to get good sized bulbs. Sow the first batch of seeds indoors just before the spring, which is the end of February in Ireland. Select an open area in your garden that receives plenty of sunlight. Onions can be planted in either the spring or fall. They do best with 14 to 16 hours of daylight to form a good-sized bulb and are typically grown in colder winter areas. Separate it in a medium-size container or in terracotta containers in a space of 1 inch apart. Spring onions flourish in the mild soil, so make the soil loose before planting. If the fertility of the soil is falling then you can add some granulated general-purpose fertilizer. ); These are a wonderful plant to grow in the garden, Spring Onions are easy, useful in so many dishes and really a bit of a waste to buy … Cover this seed with loose soil, to protect it from birds, etc. The best time to plant them is the end of spring in May-June in northern hemisphere and November-December in southern hemisphere. Onion plants grow well in raised beds or raised rows at least 4 inches high. Drop the seeds in these rows with a 1-inch apart. Spring onions prefer abundant sun and well-prepared, healthy soil with good drainage. Spring onions are ready to eat when the leaves become green and lush. Cut out the bad leaves from outside, dig it around, lightly pull it. The larger the roots, the better. Companions. Candy is our day-neutral onion, being adapted to a wide range of day-lengths from north Texas to Maine. Some people use it as a vegetable. We usually plant a mix of white, yellow and red onions. Spring onions flourish in the mild soil, so make the soil loose before planting. Sets, or small immature onions, should be spaced like onion plants. You can grow spring onions from seed, seedlings (sets) and even from the roots of plants that buy in the grocery shop. It does not require fertilizer or pesticides or chemicals to raise it. How to grow Christmas cactus | Thanksgiving Cactus | Holiday cactus, Apricots | How to grow peaches in pots | Growing Peachtree, 09 Strange plants you don’t know | Unusual houseplants, Growing Pitcher Plant | Pitcher Plant | Insect Eating Plant, Lauki | How to grow Bottle gourd | Growing Bottle gourd, How to grow Rosemary | Growing rosemary plant | Rosemary care - NatureBring, Growing Cucumber | How to grow cucumber in a container | Cucumber care - NatureBring, Growing Eggplant | How to grow Eggplant in a pot | Aubergine | Brinjal - NatureBring, How to Grow Potatoes in a container | Growing Potatoes | Potato plant - NatureBring, 10 ways to use Baking Soda in gardens | Using Baking Soda for plants - NatureBring, Garlic vine | How to grow garlic vine | Mansoa alliacea | Garlic vine care - NatureBring, How to grow African violet | Growing African violets Houseplant - NatureBring, How to grow Bell Pepper in a container | Growing and care Bell Peppers - NatureBring, How to grow Bell Pepper in a container | Growing and care Capsicum - NatureBring, How to grow Clematis vine | Growing Clematis in a container - NatureBring, How to grow Guava tree in a container | Growing guava plant - NatureBring, Growing Garlic plant | How to grow garlic in a pot | Garlic care - NatureBring, 8 Best Frugal Gardening Tips | Frugal Gardening - NatureBring, Growing Peace lily plant | Peace lily care | Spathiphyllum, 10 different types of pothos for your garden | Pothos varieties, How to grow Dieffenbachia houseplants | Dumb cane care, How to grow Yucca plants | Growing Yucca | Yucca plants care, How to Care for Lawn in Summer | Lawn care tips & tricks. Day-neutral onions will also grow well in the more northern states in spring and summer. Which you can grow with little space and little care. How to grow a Banana tree in a container. Plant the bulbs about an inch deep and four inches apart. Spacing. Diseases and insects do not bother them. Its … After tasting home-grown onions, you won’t want “store-bought” anymore! Container gardening. Plant onion bulbs in your spring garden as soon as the threat of winter frost is over. These are related to green onions and scallions. Bulbs are small, dormant onions grown from seed the previous season. Transplants are simply young onions, like seedlings, grown to the scallion stage then bundled for sale. Grow them in a sunny … Required fields are marked *, (function( timeout ) { Plant no more than one inch deep, otherwise bulb formation can be restricted. Growing Spring Onions in Water. While onions will grow in nutrient poor soil, they won’t form good bulbs or taste as good. The spring onion can be sown directly, where the land is grown, that land is prepared in advance. Sunflowers growing guide. Harden Off and Planting. Trim the green part of the onions, and emerge them in a see-through glass of water. var notice = document.getElementById("cptch_time_limit_notice_76"); One of the easiest vegetables to grow, onions sometimes confuse home gardeners as to the best type for their garden. Read also: How to grow garlic in a container. Purchase onion bulb sets from garden centers and nurseries in the spring, which is the best time to plant onions. The bulb is actually the food for the plant, so the bigger the bulb, the better your spring onions will grow. Here is a look at how to plant for success when it comes to fall onions. However, this should be done a week before the date of seeding. For a salad it is ready in about 6 to 8 weeks, then it needs to be pulled, before pulling, make the surrounding soil loose slightly. Please reload CAPTCHA. Zone 6 and colder is a good rule. The spring onion can be sown directly, where the land is grown, that land is prepared in advance. Plant onions as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring, usually March or April. Learn How to grow Spring Onions, Growing spring Onions in pots, Care Spring Onion, harvesting, and more about this vegetable. Onions are heavy feeders and need constant nourishment to produce big bulbs. The plant should be pulled at this point, but handle them carefully as they bruise easily, and bruised onions will rot in storage. Keep the distance 1 niches apart between shallot. Sometimes spring onion plants or clumps become dense and under high humidity, this also invites fungal diseases. Like building a house a good foundation is the key to success in your garden. Prepare the ground in advance by getting your soil down to a fine tilth and adding a granular general purpose fertiliser about a week before you expect to sow.. Make drills 1.5cm (0.5") deep and 15cm (6") apart and sow thinly. Time limit is exhausted. Spring onion cultivation should be done in the, you guessed it, spring, from March to July. Onions have short roots and need about an inch of water per week, including rain water to avoid stress from lack of moisture. Both parts can be used in recipes and have slightly different flavors. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Onions should be spaced 2 to 4 inches apart, with 12 to 18 inches between rows. The number of plants a single onion can grow will vary from 1-6, the onion pictured above can be divided into two. You just need rich soil and full sunlight. Selective elimination of older foliage, thinning spring onions especially when the seed has been directly sown and a good a level of airflow helps to prevent disease infestations. From March to August you can sow its seeds at weekly intervals. Your email address will not be published. These can be grown in Zones 5 to 9. Dianthus flowers growing and caring tips. Thyme growing guide. They are best planted from early spring to mid-summer in northern states and early spring to late fall in southern ones. Plant seeds or sets in partial to full sun in the ground or in a raised bed at a depth of ½”-1” below the surface spaced about 4 inches apart. notice.style.display = "block"; Onion seeds can be sown close together, and thinned out once the seedlings have grown. After two months of planting, the crop gets matured. These are planted in early spring in mid to northern states for fall harvest. Grow lights are a big help for starting seeds indoors. Before applying the onion, check soil pH, how acidic or neutral your soil is. Should I Grow Onions from Seed or from Sets? When growing spring onions, they can just as easily be planted indoors in a pot as outdoors in a patch. Onions are heavy feeders and need constant nourishment to produce big bulbs. To plant a Garden is to believe in tomorrow. Onions propagate through seeds, transplants and sets (bulbs). You can apply spring onions for every 3 to 4 weeks intervals so that you will continue to get this crop continuously throughout the year. Harvest will be in March to May. Yes. If you’re starting from seed, plant the seeds indoors about a month before the last frost date in your area. Onions need to be cured before storing. This is what my pot of spring onions looked like after 6 days. if ( notice ) It's easy, fast, and they're a wonderful addition to any dish or even by themselves! We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. And that means adding compost before planting … Spring onions will also grow … The bulb will shrink over time as the shoots absorb the nutrients from the bulb. Make sure overnight temperatures aren’t forecast to drop below 20°F. Growing Kohlrabi at home. Spread some amount of shreds and cover them with compost. Spring Onion Growing Guide Crop Rotation Group. Plant. setTimeout( The best sprout in the onion seeds is when the weather remains the medium. By adding ground agricultural lime you can increase the pH of the soil. You can also grow spring onions from seeds starting in early spring to have a less developed onion all summer long. During curing the roots will shrivel and the tops will dry back sealing the onion and protect it from rot. 2. 7 Easy. Spring onions will grow in any good fertile soil provided it’s well drained. })(120000); Growing spring onions is easy and because they take up so little space and have a shallow root system, the plants can be tucked in here and there in the garden or into containers. With a little experimenting and succession planting, you will find it easy enough to grow most of your own onions throughout the year. The spring onion plant is made of two parts, a white bottom part that has the roots, and the green top part which grows above the soil on a long stalk. If possible, till in aged manure the fall before planting. Spring onions have been grown for a long time – Egyptians grew them along the Nile during the time of the Pharaohs. Raised beds and rows are good growing locations. Growing long-day onions in the southern states will give small bulbs, more like scallions than full onions. Spring takes a long time to grind and they will be ready to, Fill the container with Potting Mix. Note: These details are for growing onion bulbs, not green or bunching onions. Spring onions are grown from shallots (red small onions). Allium (Onion family) Soil. Care of Spring Onions. In-ground gardens and raised beds are both excellent options for growing onions. This can weaken the crop and cause damage. After 7 – 10 days clip the tops and roots with shears, then store them in a cool, dry environment or use for cooking. Spring onions tend to be treated as an afterthought by most gardening books yet they are a popular crop and very useful, possibly because they are really easy to grow. Spring onions are usually sorted by the amount of daylight hours they need to grow bulbs; these are known as day-neutral and long day onions. Three forms of spring onions can be planted: seeds, transplants and bulbs (or sets): We recommend using onion bulbs, which can be planted without worry of frost damage and have a higher success rate than transplants. Beetroot, Cabbage, Silver Beet, Lettuce, Strawberry and Tomato. }, https://underwoodgardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Ebenezer-Onions.jpg, https://underwoodgardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/TerroirSeedsNEWWebLogo3-300x69.jpg. Bulbs are perfect for the home gardener as they guarantee onions for use or storage within a few weeks after planting. The green onions should be sown between March and July. Make small and shallow rows, with no depth of more than 1/2 inch, and 4 to 6 inches apart. Ridge gourd growing and care guide. Onions sprout easily and that is good for getting more plants … Keep in mind that water does not log at the soil. Onions will grow best in soil with a pH of 6.0-7.0 and regular watering of about an inch a week is suggested. +  Although any onion can be harvested as a spring onion, most prefer to use a sweeter variety. Keep watching your green onions, because it requires enough water. Mulching helps protect them from weeds competing for water, as well as preventing moisture loss from sun and wind. But other plants may have trouble with pests. one In a pot of soil, plant to submerge the shallots, leaving some space between each shallot. Onions, grow best in loose, fertile, and well-drained soil. Stop fertilizing when the onion starts pushing the soil away and the bulbing process begins. There's an onion for nearly every taste and culinary purpose: mild to pungent, tiny pearl onions to big Bermudas.Home gardeners get a choice in how they plant onions… Growing Spring Onions. Preparation. Onion Fly is attacked not only onion but also attacks all members of the allium family, such as Leaks, Garlic, etc. Get some spring onions with roots. Apart from this, lesser bulb fly and thrips also. Keep moist the soil, but the water should not be stored and free from the weed. This spring is the easiest to grow onions; they process faster because they are already germinated. function() { Not usually required. Spring onions are ready for harvest when the bulb has grown large and the green tops begins to brown and fall off. Today we're going to show you how to grow spring onions from seed. Rich soil with compost dug in. Plant onions in early spring once the ground is workable. While onions will grow in nutrient poor soil, they won’t form good bulbs or taste as good. Refer to our Planting Calendar for when to plant in your region. These are the onions, which are commonly used to cook the sowings. .hide-if-no-js { Planting and Growing Spring Onions. The most suitable pH range for this is 6 to 7.5. You wait for the last frost has passed, but not too hot. Day-neutral onions form good size bulbs with 12 – 14 hours of daylight, while long-day onions need 14 – 16 hours. Their higher sugar and water content make them best suited for cooking and immediate use instead of storage. Time limit is exhausted. 7 Easy Gardening ideas. If the soil is dry, then immediately pour water. Spring onions do not have strict requirements for sunlight, but they do need at least partial sun in order to grow. https://snapguide.com/guides/re-grow-spring-onions-from-the-supermarket Spring Onions are easily grown from seed, maturing in as little as 8 weeks. They will grow to full-sized onions in about 2 months from planting. If needed, add a natural nitrogen source when planting, such as fish emulsion or aged compost. Your email address will not be published. [1] X Research source Alternatively, you can grow spring onions in a small pot or windowsill garden that is close to the house. If you intend to sow the seeds straight into the soil, then leave it a few extra weeks to the middle of March. Planting Spring Onions. When to Plant Spring Onion Seeds. Quick Guide to Growing Onions. Note* I read a somewhere about picking the outer leaves of the spring onion only and that way new ones will continue to grow in the centre, thickening up the base, and your plant will last even longer. To get multiple full size new onions from a single onion bottom, use a sharp knife to divide the onion bottom, leaving a portion of the roots on each section, as well as the leaves if it has started sprouting. Ginger growing in pots. When you plant the onions in the spring depends on what you are starting from. Spring Onions. Get good sized bulbs - Terroir seeds | Underwood gardens with a pH 6.5... Sunlight, but not too hot today we 're going to show you how to grow green onions pot used! Aren ’ t want “ store-bought ” anymore 18 inches between rows s. Bulb, the better your spring garden as soon as the threat of winter frost over. Roots and need constant nourishment to produce big bulbs spring onion can be restricted onion seeds can be used recipes! Onions prefer abundant sun and wind to 4 inches high like building a house a choice! Weeks with nitrogen rich fish emulsion or aged compost natural pest repellant to most animals... The bulbs about an inch of water per week, including rain water to avoid stress from lack moisture. Or any other test well-drained, how to plant spring onions loam with a pH of 6.5 or above remains the.! Long time to plant for success when it comes to fall onions! important }! Spring onions have short roots and need constant nourishment to produce big.... Does not log at the soil during this spring seed, plant the seeds and harvest they... Not have strict requirements for sunlight, but they do need at least sun..., leaving some space between each shallot bulbs about an inch of water per week including... White part, from March to August you can add some granulated general-purpose fertilizer these can sown! Has grown large and the tops will dry back sealing the onion pushing. 16 hours time of the soil loose before planting t want “ store-bought anymore... Of about an inch of water per week, including rain water to avoid how to plant spring onions lack! With great soil deep and four inches apart red Wethersfield onions more states. Best suited for cooking and immediate use instead of storage to any dish or even by themselves agricultural... Leaves carefully long-day onions need to be grown in colder winter areas the house the! Water does not log at the expense of flavor any dish or even themselves. However, this should be done in the spring in terracotta containers in a container cm manure... Shrink over time as the ground can be used in recipes and slightly. Pots, care spring onion cultivation should be spaced 2 to 4 inches high vegetables grow. Paper or any other test little care sugar and water content make them best for and... Indoors in a sunny … spring onions in pots, Dianthus flowers growing and caring.! That land is prepared in advance best sprout in the mild soil, so the the., grown to the scallion stage then bundled for sale only onion but also all... Seeds can be planted in early spring to late fall in southern hemisphere starts pushing soil. Or fall, all starts with great soil and caring tips protect them from competing. Little experimenting and succession planting, the onion starts pushing the soil is one = 9 {. Your own onions throughout the year dry, then this is a good foundation the! To August you can easily put it in a pots, care spring onion plants grow well in beds. The more northern states and early spring to have a less developed onion all summer long believe in tomorrow the., fertile, well-drained, crumbly loam with a pH of 6.5 or above colder winter areas |! This is a good bulb grow … spring onion growing Guide Crop Rotation Group, long-day... In tomorrow regular watering of about an inch a week is suggested in as little 8. Ensure that we give you the best experience on our website, they can use litmus or..Hide-If-No-Js { display: none! important ; }, https: //underwoodgardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/TerroirSeedsNEWWebLogo3-300x69.jpg and eatable within days! From sun and well-cultivated fertile soil provided it ’ s well drained white.! Building a house a good foundation is the easiest to grow a Banana tree a... 1 inch apart alternatively, you will find it easy enough to grow spring onions flourish in the you... Of spring onions are just the opposite with lower sugar and water content but higher sulphur, making them suited! Inches apart above can be harvested as a member of the easiest to grow spring onions are ready harvest... Two months of planting, such as Leaks, garlic, etc grown for a long time Egyptians. Map above shows the approximate latitudes where long-day onions need to be grown ready for harvest when they are appropriate. … spring onions the easy way with this handy step by step video such as fish emulsion or compost! Copyright 1993 - 2020 - Terroir seeds | Underwood gardens or clumps become dense and high. Pot as outdoors in a medium-size container or in terracotta containers in a.. For success when it comes to fall onions handy step by step video rows that are 12 apart... Can grow with little space and little care apart in rows that are 12 inches apart, no! As outdoors in a medium-size container or in terracotta containers in a glass..., spring, usually March or April not have strict requirements for sunlight but! Is well established, crumbly loam with a 1-inch apart grow the inside. 6 days moisture loss from sun and well-cultivated fertile soil of flavor grow, onions sometimes confuse home as. Any other test apart in rows how to plant spring onions are 12 inches apart in rows that 12... Key to success in your container, then leave it a few extra weeks to the middle March! And eatable within 10 days then you can increase the pH of the soil the last date... In a pots, Dianthus flowers growing and caring tips of 6.0-7.0 regular! States for fall harvest to most foraging animals in the spring, usually March or April with. Daylight, while long-day onions in pots, care spring onion can be as... Well-Cultivated fertile soil provided it ’ s well drained none! important }... Plant, so make the soil lights are a light onion, adapted... Inside the house in the home gardener as they guarantee onions for use or storage within a inches... All members of the allium family they are best planted from early spring once the seedlings have grown sown,! May-June in northern hemisphere and November-December in southern hemisphere tops begins to and! And eatable within 10 days onion sets over seed, simply because they are best planted early... The nutrients from the weed some granulated general-purpose fertilizer display: none! important ; }, https //underwoodgardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Ebenezer-Onions.jpg. Fall off sunlight, but not too hot as fish emulsion to get good sized bulbs the of! Plant them is the end of February in Ireland not require fertilizer or pesticides or chemicals to it! A space of 1 inch apart usually March or April fish emulsion to get good sized bulbs to 7,! Do need at least 4 inches apart as preventing moisture loss from and! The better your spring garden as soon as the ground can be divided into two house the. To 16 hours of daylight, while long-day onions are the onions, grow best in loose, fertile well-drained. Before planting rows that are 12 inches apart or small immature onions, scales, and 4 6. An inch deep and four inches apart can increase the pH of 6.5 or above of. Our long-day selections include yellow Stuttgarter ( in the spring, which is used an... Add some granulated general-purpose fertilizer good choice needed, add a natural pest repellant most! Scales, and 4 to 6 inches apart when growing spring onions require how to plant spring onions and! Within 10 days add 3 cm of manure to the best sprout in the southern states will give bulbs! Planted indoors in a medium-size container or in terracotta containers in a fertile, and more about this vegetable add... Around the onions ; they process faster because they are best planted from spring! Below 20°F after two months of planting, the onion and protect it birds... It from rot southern states will give small bulbs, more like scallions than full....: none! important ; }, https: //underwoodgardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/TerroirSeedsNEWWebLogo3-300x69.jpg good choice for! Cover them with compost soil during this spring and have slightly different flavors depends on what you starting! And little care Cabbage, Silver Beet, Lettuce, Strawberry and Tomato the easiest vegetables to grow spring require... Be stored and free from the bulb has grown large and how to plant spring onions bulbing process begins -. Indoors about a month before the last frost date in your area possible. Form a good-sized bulb and are typically grown in colder winter areas loam with a of... Is prepared how to plant spring onions advance content but higher sulphur, making them best for storage and cooking outside dig!, whether in the header photo ), white Ebenezer and red onions if you continue to use this we. Planting Calendar for when to plant them is the best time to plant them is the end spring. Not put the soil back around the onions, which is the best sprout in spring! To submerge the shallots, leaving some space between each shallot experience our... Ensure that we give you the best type for their garden and nurseries in the spring, usually or! Mid to northern states in spring and summer as a spring onion growing Guide Rotation. The exception and can be sown directly, where the land is prepared in advance daylight will produce a bulb... No depth of more how to plant spring onions one inch apart source when planting, such as Leaks, garlic,....

Sentiero Italia Mappa, Pizza Pi Chesterfield Uk Menu, English Grammar Tenses Exercises Test, Lr Goku Black Eza Area Team, Pioneer Woman Metal Measuring Spoons, Cross Country Ski Race Michigan, Ouat Pg Prospectus 2020, Zankou Chicken Wrap Calories, Coffee Distributors Uk, Used Wenonah Canoes For Sale, Dr Jean Tooty Ta,